Thyroid diseases

Thyroid peroxidase antibodies | Thyroglobulin antibodies

Thyroid peroxidase antibodies

Products

Article No.

No. of tests

ImmunoCAP Thyroid Peroxidase 14-4508-35 3x16 tests
Varelisa TPO Antibodies 123 96 96 tests

Antigens

Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) has been characterized as an integral membrane haemoprotein (MW around 100 kDa) that catalyses the iodination of thyroglobulin (TG), as well as the coupling of two di-iodotyrosine residues in the TG molecule to form thyroxine. The actual nature of the microsomal antigen remained unknown for nearly three decades until 1985, when Portmann et al. showed that the microsomal antigen is identical to TPO. The sensitivity and specificity of TPO antibodies assays rely heavily on the purity and quality of the test antigen and, in particular, on the absence of TG contaminant.

The Varelisa TPO Antibodies assay and the ImmunoCAP Thyroid Peroxidase use human recombinant TPO, produced in eukaryotic cells (Baculovirus/Sf9 system).

Disease association, antibody prevalence and specificity

  • Hashimoto thyroiditis (91-99%)
  • Graves' disease (71-97%)
  • Primary myxoedema (40-70%)
  • Post-partum thyroiditis (60%)
  • Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) (very rare)
  • Endocrine orbitopathy (47%)
  • Simple goitre (25%)
  • Thyroid cancer (5%)
  • May occur in organ-specific autoimmune diseases, including pernicious anaemia, Addison's disease, type-I diabetes mellitus, polyglandular endocrine failure syndromes, etc.
  • Healthy individuals (5-15%, higher in elderly, but mostly in low titres)

Information about the diseases

New assays have sensitivities and specificities of >95%. Negative tests can virtually exclude a diagnosis of thyroiditis.

Disease activity

Quantitatively, there is a tendency for individuals with higher autoantibody levels to be more susceptible to hypothyroidism.

When is the measurement recommended?

  • Suspicion of thyroiditis
  • Pregnancy in women with familial history of thyroid or autoimmune complications

Antibody isotype

IgG

References

Rapoport B, McLachlan SM (1996)  |  McLachlan SM, Rapoport B (1995)  |  Kraiem Z (1998)   

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Thyroglobulin antibodies

Product

Article No.

No. of tests

Varelisa TG Antibodies 121 96 96 tests
ImmunoCAP Thyroglobulin 14-4507-35 3x16 tests

Antigens

Thyroglobulin (TG) is a large 670 kDa globular glycoprotein composed of two identical disulphide-linked subunits. The majority of thyroid iodine is associated with this prohormone, which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. About 75% of the total protein content of the thyroid follicle consists of thyroglobulin. Due to the large TG content of the thyroid gland, good antigen quality and purity can be achieved using conventional purification techniques.

The Varelisa TG Antibodies assay and the ImmunoCAP Thyroglobulin are coated with thyroglobulin purified from human thyroid glands.

Disease association, antibody prevalence and specificity

  • Hashimoto thyroiditis (60-85%)
  • Graves' disease (30-80%)
  • Primary myxoedema (20-30%)
  • Post-partum thyroiditis (30%)
  • Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) (very rare)
  • Endocrine orbitopathy (24%)
  • Simple goitre (4%)
  • Thyroid cancers (2-15%)
  • Pernicious anaemia (27%)
  • Addison's disease (28%)
  • Diabetes mellitus (20%)
  • Healthy individuals (4-8%, higher in elderly, but mostly in lower titres)

Autoantibodies to TG and TPO provide a valuable exclusionary test in patients with thyroid disease, because over 98% of thyroiditis patients have autoantibodies to one or both of these antigens. Negative tests can virtually exclude a diagnosis of thyroiditis.

Disease activity

Primary risk factor for future autoimmune thyroid dysfunction. A change in TG antibody levels may provide useful information in postoperative patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma; elevation of these antibodies could indicate recurrence or metastases.

When is the measurement recommended?

  • Suspicion of thyroiditis
  • Differentiated thyroid carcinoma after operation

Antibody isotype

IgG

References

Burek CL, Rose NR (1996)  |  Kraiem Z (1998)  |  Fisher DA, Pandian MR, Carlton E (1987)

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