Elk/moose meat

 
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Code: f285
Latin name: Alces spp.
Source material: Raw meat
In general, the larger the number of atopic problems in an individual, the greater the chances of food being involved. Further information about f285 will be available in coming versions of ImmunoCAP™ InVitroSight™.

Allergen Exposure

Cooked or smoked.

Potential Cross-Reactivity

Crossreactivity between elk and deer allergens, as well as horse and cow allergens, has been suggested. (1-4).

Clinical Experience

Elk has been reported as an occupational allergen (1, 4). Thirteen patients from the western US were tested and had positive skin tests to moose and deer hair and IgE titers were elevated in four and nine patients, respectively. RAST inhibition with domestic animals did not show crossreactivity (1). However, other studies have shown allergenic relations between deer epithelium allergens and horse or cow epithelium (2, 3) and recognition of deer serum albumin by bovine serum albumin-specific IgE antibodies can not be fully excluded (4). A scrimshander (bone carver) experienced anaphylaxis and asthma while carving deer bones.
 
Upon investigation it was found that the man had IgE-mediated allergy to the deer proteins altered by boiling in alkali (5).
 
Review
Elk is a large species of deer native to Northern Europe, Asia and North America where it is called moose. Elk in N America refers to a different species of the same family, also known as wapiti.

References

  1. Dahlberg, MJE; Gillespie, DN; Yunginger, JW. Inhalant allergy to deer and elk in professional and recreational hunters. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 1983; 71: 159.
  2. Huwyler, T; Wüthrich B. A case of fallow deer allergy. Cross-reactivity between fallow deer and horse allergy. Allergy; 1992; 47:574-575.
  3. Spitzauer, S; Valenta, R; Muhl, S; Rumpold, H; Ebner, H; Ebner, C. Characterization of allergens from deer: Crossreactivity with allergens from cow dander. Clin Exp Allergy; 1997; 27: 196-200.
  4. Restani, P; Fiocchi, A; Beretta, B; Veloná, T; Giovannini, M; Galli, CL. Meat allergy: III – Proteins involved and cross-reactivity between different animal species. J Am Coll Nutr; 1997; 16: 383-389.
  5. Patterson, R; Ganz, MA; Roberts, M. Anaphylaxis and asthma in a scrimshander due to deer bone dust. Ann Allergy; 1991;67: 529-532.

As in all diagnostic testing, the diagnosis is made by the physican based on both test results and the patient history.