Latin name: Glycine max
Source material: A native extract of allergen Gly m 5 purified from a natural Glycine max.
Common names: Vicilin, alpha Subunit of beta-Conglycinin
- rGly m 4
- nGly m 5
- nGly m 6
A vicilin-like protein.
Mw: 40-70 kDa
Other allergens isolated
Soya protein consists of 136 phytochemicals and at least 21 allergenic proteins that have been identified. , Seed proteins in Soybean comprise 2 major fractions that account for 70% to 80% of total protein composition: 11S and 7S globulins.
The following allergens have been characterised:
- Gly m 1, a 7-8 kDa protein, also known as HPS or Soybean hydrophobic protein. ,
- Gly m 2, an 8 kDa protein.7,
- Gly m 3, a 12-15 kDa protein, a profilin.4
- Gly m 4, a Bet v 1 homologue.7,
- Gly m 5, a vicilin-like protein, also known as vicilin or alpha subunit of beta-conglycinin.1, 2, 7
- Gly m 6, an 11S globulin (legumin-like protein), also known as legumin, and G1 subunit of glycinin, G2 subunit of glycinin, G3 subunit of glycinin, G4 subunit of glycinin, G5 subunit of glycinin.1, 7,
- Gly m 2S albumin.
- Gly m 39kD.9
- Gly m Bd28K.
- Gly m Bd30K, a 30-34 kDa protein, a thiol protease of the papain family, also known as P34.
- Gly m Lectin.
- Gly m Bd 60K.
- Gly m Oleosin.
- Gly m Trypsin Inhibitor.
- Gly m IFR, an isoflavone reductase.
Gly m 5 is a vicilin-like protein, also known as vicilin or alpha Subunit of beta-Conglycinin. Unlike with Gly m 1 and Gly m 2, major allergens to which subjects are exposed through inhalation of Soybean dust, the exposure route to the Gly m 5 allergen is Soybean ingestion.7
Vicilins are seed-storage globulins that are the major components of plant seeds, and constitute important protein sources for the human diet. Also known as 7/8S globulins, these proteins are quantitatively important seed-storage proteins, which often exist as large trimeric oligomers (of about 150 to 190 kDa) in the seed protein bodies, with individual subunits usually 40 to 70 kDa in size.
Vicilin proteins are also known by other names: conarachin of Peanut (Ara h 1), phaseolin of common bean, beta-conglycinin of Soybean, and canavalin of jack bean.20 However, not all vicilins are allergenic.
Sensitisation to the Soybean storage proteins Gly m 5 or Gly m 6 has been shown to be associated with severe reactions to Soybean. Therefore Gly m 5 and Gly m 6 could be considered diagnostic markers for identifying Soy-allergic subjects who are at high risk for severe clinical symptoms.1 However, in Birch tree-prevalent areas, primary sensitisation to Bet v 1 with potential clinical cross-reactivity to Soybean Gly m 4 may be frequent, especially in soy products with a low level of processing; this factor needs to be taken into account when assessing the risk for severe Soybean-related allergic reactions, as Gly m 4 is able to cause severe allergic reactions to Soy in subjects with Birch pollen allergy.1, 5, 10
The potential benefit of evaluating Gly m 5 or Gly m 6 was demonstrated in a clinical study of 25 European adults and 5 children with confirmed Soybean allergy, where no correlation could be demonstrated between the dose of Soybean and the severity of symptoms, nor between the pattern of IgE reactivity (which was highly individual) and the severity of symptoms. However, of the group, 7 (23%) had severe Soy-related allergic reactions, and of these, 6 who experienced anaphylaxis either by history or during Soybean challenge were sensitized to Gly m 5 or Gly m 6.1 The study also reported that the major Soybean storage proteins are putative major soybean allergens in children: in the 5 children with Soy allergy, a high frequency (>50%) of IgE-binding to Gly m 6 and (especially) to Gly m 5 was found.
Compiled by Dr Harris Steinman, developer of Allergy Advisor, http://allergyadvisor.com
- Holzhauser T, Wackermann O, Ballmer-Weber BK, Bindslev-Jensen C, Scibilia J, Perono-Garoffo L, Utsumi S, Poulsen LK, Vieths S. Soybean (Glycine max) allergy in Europe: Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) are potential diagnostic markers for severe allergic reactions to soy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;123(2):452-8.
- Krishnan HB, Kim WS, Jang S, Kerley MS. All three subunits of soybean beta-conglycinin are potential food allergens. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57(3):938-43.
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- International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature: IUIS official list http://www.allergen.org/Allergen.aspx 2010
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- Kleine-Tebbe J, Vogel L, Crowell DN, Haustein UF, Vieths S. Severe oral allergy syndrome and anaphylactic reactions caused by a Bet v 1- related PR-10 protein in soybean, SAM22. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110(5):797-804.
- Guo P, Piao X, Cao Y, Ou D, Li D. Recombinant Soybean Protein beta-Conglycinin alpha'-Subunit Expression and Induced Hypersensitivity Reaction in Rats. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2007;145(2):102-110.
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- Pons L, Chery C, Romano A, Namour F, Artesani MC, Gueant JL. The 18 kDa peanut oleosin is a candidate allergen for IgE-mediated reactions to peanuts. Allergy 2002;57 Suppl 72:88-93.
- Baur X, Pau M, et al. Characterization of soybean allergens causing sensitization of occupationally exposed bakers. Allergy 1996;51(5):326-30.
- Karamloo F, Wangorsch A, Kasahara H, Davin LB, Haustein D, Lewis NG, Vieths S. Phenylcoumaran benzylic ether and isoflavonoid reductases are a new class of cross-reactive allergens in birch pollen, fruits and vegetables. Eur J Biochem 2001;268(20):5310-20.
- Teuber SS, Jarvis KC, Dandekar AM, Peterson WR, Ansari AA. Identification and cloning of a complementary DNA encoding a vicilin-like proprotein, jug r 2, from English walnut kernel (Juglans regia), a major food allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104(6):1311-20.