Latin name: Euroglyphus maynei
Source material: Whole body culture
Common names: House Dust mite, Dust mite
See common geographical background in our Scientific Document (link to the right).
Euroglyphus maynei is prevalent in humid geographical areas throughout the world (1). These mites thrive in humid human dwellings where there is no liquid water to drink. Their bodies contain 70 to 75% water by weight, which must be maintained in order for the mites to reproduce. Their primary source of water is water vapour, which is extracted from the air. At relative humidities above 65 to 70%, adequate amounts of water can be extracted from unsaturated air to compensate for that lost by all avenues (2). Study of the biology of E. maynei has been relatively uncommon because the mite is difficult to culture. E. maynei has been increasingly recognised as an important source of allergen exposure for patients with House dust mite allergy (3).
See common environmental background tomites in our Scientific Document (link to the right).
E. maynei is the source of at least 47 individual allergens. Twenty-two of the allergens were recognised by more than 50% of sera from 16 E. maynei-allergic individuals, and all but 1 of the subjects had IgE that bound to more than 10 allergens. One of the proteins was identified as the allergen Eur m 2 (3).
Although a number of allergens have been isolated from this mite, only a few have been characterised:
- Eur m 1, a thiol cysteine protease (4-6).
- Eur m 2 (1,4,6).
- Eur m 3, a Group 3 mite allergen (7).
- Eur m 4, a 57 to 60 kDa protein, an alphaamylase (6,8-9).
- Eur m 14, vitellogenin, an apolipophorin from haemolymph (6,10).
- rEur m 14, a recombinant allergen (10).
- Group 2 allergens (e.g., Der p 2, Eur m 2) have been reported to induce humoral and cellular responses in 80 to 90% of miteallergic individuals (11).
A moderate degree of cross-reactivity exists between the House dust mite E. maynei and the House dust mite Dermatophagoides species (12). Other studies have reported a higher degree of cross-reactivity between these 2 types of House dust mites, with a high level of primary structure similarity being demonstrated among Eur m 1, Der p 1 and Der f 1. Eur m 1 and Der p I showed 85% amino acid identity, and the 3 allergen amino acid sequences taken together showed a 78% identity (5,13-14).
Similarly, amino acid sequences of Eur m 1 and Eur m 2 were reported to have an 84 to 86% sequence identity with the corresponding allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae mites. This was reported to be the same as the degree of sequence identity found between D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae, despite Euroglyphus being a member of the Pyroglyphinae subfamily rather than the Dermatophagoidinae subfamily (4,15). Pso o 1 from Sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis) has also been shown to be homologous to mite Group 1 allergens (16), and Pso o 2 to mite Group 2 allergens (17).
Other authors have also reported significant cross-reactivity among Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus species. Blomia kulagini demonstrated a medium degree of cross-reactivity with Euroglyphus maynei. Immunological crossreactivity between Pyroglyphidae and non- Pyroglyphidae mites was reported to be very low (18).
After an examination of cross-reactivity at the T-cell level, E. maynei Group 1 allergens were reported to be a significant source of primary T-cell sensitisation and to have little T-cell cross-reactivity with D. pteronyssinus or D. farinae (19).
Although E. maynei and B. tropicalis are the source of both species-specific and crossreactive allergens, most allergens in each appear to be species-specific (20). Eur m 3, a Group 3 mite serine protease allergen, has been shown to exhibit 42-57% homology with a cloned trypsin gene from the German cockroach (21). As Blo t 3 from B. tropicalis is highly homologous to Group 3 Dust mite allergens, cross reactivity is likely between B. tropicalis and E. maynei.7 (22). Der p 4 and Eur m 4 were calculated to be 90% identical, and their amino acid sequences demonstrated an approximately 50%-identical match to insect and mammalian alpha-amylases, although the clinical relevance of this latter finding is unknown (8).
Of 2 recombinant allergens constructed from Sarcoptes scabiei, 1 was homologous to and cross-reactive with the E. maynei allergen Eur m 14, an apolipophorin from haemolymph (23). Amino acid sequence data has demonstrated similarity between Eur m 14 and other allergens in D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae; these allergens showed strong similarity to the insect apolipophorins that exist in the lipid transport particles in haemolymph (10).
E. maynei may commonly induce symptoms of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis and exacerbate atopic dermatitis in sensitised individuals (24-26).
House dust mites from the family Pyroglyphidae – Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae and Euroglyphus maynei – are recognised as the major source of allergens in house dust and the indoor environment, producing multiple potent allergens. They are common inhabitants of homes worldwide (27-29). In fact, the House dust mites to which humans are most frequently sensitised are these very 3 (4,30). Sensitisation to E. maynei has been reported throughout many countries of the world.
In Germany, sensitisation to E. maynei was shown to be common (31). In 86 German farmers with rhinitis and/or asthma evaluated by skin-specific IgE determination, the most frequent sensitisations were found to be to the 3 Blomia species, E. maynei and G. domesticus (25).
In a survey of mites in 30 homes in Oxfordshire, UK, D. pteronyssinus and E. maynei were found to be the most abundant species, but D. farinae was absent (32). In Oxford, UK, 25 atopic children under 11 years of age were studied through skin test and IgE antibody response to D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, D. microceras and Euroglyphus maynei. All of the children were sensitive to D. pteronyssinus, 20 (80%) were also sensitive to D. farinae and D. microceras, and of this latter group16 (64%) were also sensitive to E. maynei (33).
Similarly, a survey was done of the House dust mite population in the homes of 50 asthmatics residing in Liverpool, UK, who had strong skin reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. It was demonstrated, as expected, that D. pteronyssinus was the commonest species. However, E. maynei made up 37% of the total adult mite count and was the predominant species in 48% of beds examined (34). Glasgow, with a mild, highrainfall climate, combined with deteriorating housing and low standards of living in many parts of the city, is said to be a particularly suitable place for thriving populations of House dust mites. In a study, 31 species were detected, of which the most abundant were D. pteronyssinus (64.3%), Glycyphagus domesticus (16.7%), and Euroglyphus maynei (11.6%) (35-36).
In a Polish study, more than 30 mite species were found, of which the most common were those of the Pyroglyphid family, especially D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. E. maynei occurred in very small numbers (37). These findings concurred with those of a study examining house dust samples from 335 dwellings at 27 different localities in Poland. This study identified 15 species, including 4 species from the family Pyroglyphidae. D. farinae predominated, followed by D. pteronyssinus, and only 1.6% of the homes contained E. maynei (38).
Among farmers working and living in rural regions of Austria (Styria, Lower Austria), and 26 citizens of Vienna, elevated levels of IgE antibodies specific for E. maynei were more frequently observed in the urban dwellers (39). In the Czech Republic, E. maynei was found more commonly in recreation houses and some hospitals (40). In Russia, in a group of patients with allergic disease who were sensitised to D. pteronyssinus, 80% were also sensitised to D. farinae, 55% to E. maynei, 45% to A. siro and 35% to L. destructor (41). Sensitisation to this mite has been reported in Scandinavian countries (42). In Sweden, E. maynei was shown to be a common cause of sensitisation among the whole farming population, with a prevalence of 4.5%, as shown by on the detection of serum-specific IgE (43). However, sensitisation to this mite in Swedish bakers was reported to be rare (44).
In Israel, the House dust mites D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and Euroglyphus maynei constituted 94.8% of the mites. The most prevalent species of mites were shown to be D. pteronyssinus (85.6%) and D. farinae (71.3%) (45).
E. maynei has also been shown to be an important mite in the Americas. In a study involving 8 geographic areas of the United States, it was demonstrated that the most common Dust mites found in homes were D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, E. maynei, and B. tropicalis (46). In Hawaii, dust was collected from 102 university student dormitory rooms. Thirty-three samples were selected for analysis and shown to contain D. pteronyssinus in 81.9% and D. farinae in 11.2%. The presence of the Euroglyphus species was reported to be very low (47). In the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil, E. maynei and Tyrophagus putrescentiae were some of the main species found (48). In 99 subjects with acute asthma and 100 controls in Cartagena, Colombia, sensitisation to E. maynei was demonstrated to be 68.7% vs. 22% (49). In a study involving 56 asthmatics in Santa Fe, Argentina, 46 were found to be positive on skin test to D. pteronyssinus, 43 to D. farinae, 27 to Aleuroglyphus ovatus, 38 to B. tropicalis and 27 to Chortoglyphus arcuatus; 38 of 54 individuals had IgE antibodies to E. maynei, and 22 of 54 to L. destructor (50). In 100 children with a history of mild or moderate asthma living in Mexico City, skin tests demonstrated that D. pteronyssinus was positive in 96, D. farinae in 80, and E. maynei in 41 (51). In an allergen exposure study in Uberaba, Brazil, 240 dust samples were collected from 60 houses. D. pteronyssinus was reported to be the most frequent species found (15.6%), followed by D. farinae (12.3%) and E. maynei (7.9%) (52).
In Valdivia, Chile, among 100 consecutive paediatric asthma patients evaluated, 80 were confirmed to have skin reactivity to at least 1 mite species. All patients with skin reactivity for mites were positive to D. pteronyssinus, 99% to D. farinae, 92% to E. maynei, 80% to L. destructor, 73% to T. putrescientae, 72% to B. tropicalis, 70% to A. siro and 68% to C. arcuatus. All of the patients with severe persistent asthma had skin reactivity to mites, as did 85% in the moderate group and 73% in the mild group. Ninety-five percent of patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis were shown to have skin reactivity to mites, as were 92% of patients with asthma and eczema and 100% of patients with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema (53).
Mites from mattresses in homes of 11 cities in Puerto Rico were assessed, and E. maynei was found in 5.3% of homes (54). The predominant mite species in Perth and Bunbury in Australia were D. pteronyssinus, E. maynei and Tarsonemus species. Surprisingly, D. farinae was found to be absent from all dust samples examined. E. maynei was present in the 10 Bunbury homes and in 50% of the Perth homes, ranging up to 81% of mites identified (55). E. maynei has been reported from China (56). In 93 Taiwanese asthmatic children aged from 3 to 15 years examined for IgE antibodies to 5 different species of mites, 63 were found to have IgE antibodies to at least 1 mite. Seventy-seven percent were shown to be sensitised to E. maynei. Some patients were shown to have IgE antibodies to E. maynei (3.2%) and B. tropicalis (3.2%), even though they had none to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae (57).
In the manufacture of "chorizo" sausage, occupational allergy has been reported to E. maynei (58).
Compiled by Dr Harris Steinman, email@example.com
- Morgan MS, Arlian LG, Barnes KC, Fernandez-Caldas E. Characterization of the allergens of the house dust mite Euroglyphus maynei. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100(2):222-8
- Arlian LG. Water balance and humidity requirements of house dust mites. Exp Appl Acarol 1992;16(1-2):15-35
- Colloff MJ. A review of the biology and allergenicity of the house-dust mite Euroglyphus maynei (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) [corrected] Exp Appl Acarol 1991;11(2- 3):177-98 Erratum in: Exp Appl Acarol 1991;12(1-2):151
- Smith W, Mills K, Hazell L, Hart B, Thomas W. Molecular analysis of the group 1 and 2 allergens from the house dust mite, Euroglyphus maynei. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999;118(1):15-22
- Kent NA, Hill MR, Keen JN, Holland PW, Hart BJ. Molecular characterisation of group I allergen Eur m I from house dust mite Euroglyphus maynei. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1992;99(1):150-2
- International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature: IUIS official list http://www.allergen.org/List.htm 2007
- Flores I, Mora C, Rivera E, Donnelly R, Montealegre F. Cloning and molecular characterization of a cDNA from Blomia tropicalis homologous to dust mite group 3 allergens (trypsin-like proteases). Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;130(1):12-6
- Mills KL, Hart BJ, Lynch NR, Thomas WR, Smith W. Molecular characterization of the group 4 house dust mite allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and its amylase homologue from Euroglyphus maynei. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999;120(2):100-7
- Stewart GA, Bird CH, Krska KD, Colloff MJ, Thompson PJ. A comparative study of allergenic and potentially allergenic enzymes from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae and Euroglyphus maynei. Exp Appl Acarol 1992;16(1-2):165-80
- Epton MJ, Dilworth RJ, Smith W, Hart BJ, Thomas WR. High-molecular-weight allergens of the house dust mite: an apolipophorin-like cDNA has sequence identity with the major M-177 allergen and the IgE-binding peptide fragments Mag1 and Mag3. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999;120(3):185-91
- Heymann PW, Chapman MD, Aalberse RC, Fox JW, Platts-Mills TA. Antigenic and structural analysis of group II allergens (Der f II and Der p II) from house dust mites (Dermatophagoides spp). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;83:1055-1067
- Kemp SF, Lockey RF, Fernandez-Caldas E, Arlian LG. Skin test and crossreactivity studies with Euroglyphus maynei and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27(8):893-7
- Arlian LG, Rapp CM, Fernandez-Caldas E. Allergenicity of Euroglyphus maynei and its cross-reactivity with Dermatophagoides species. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91(5):1051-8
- Arruda LK, Chapman MD. A review of recent immunochemical studies of Blomia tropicalis and Euroglyphus maynei allergens. Exp Appl Acarol 1992;16(1-2):129-40
- Smith AM, Benjamin DC, Hozic N, Derewenda U, Smith WA, et al. The molecular basis of antigenic cross-reactivity between the group 2 mite allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107(6):977-984
- Lee AJ, Machell J, Van Den Broek AH, Nisbet AJ, Miller HR, Isaac RE, Huntley JF. Identification of an antigen from the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, homologous with house dust mite group I allergens. Parasite Immunol 2002;24(8):413-22
- Temeyer KB, Soileau LC, Pruett JH. Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA encoding Pso o II, a mite group II allergen of the sheep scab mite (Acari: Psoroptidae). J Med Entomol 2002;39(2):384-391
- Garcia-Robaina JC, Eraso E, De la Torre F, Guisantes J, Martinez A, Palacios R, Martinez J. Extracts from various mite species contain cross-reactive and noncross-reactive IgE epitopes. A RAST inhibition study. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1998;8(5):285-9
- Hales BJ, Thomas WR. T-cell sensitization to epitopes from the house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei. Exp Allergy 1997;27(8):868-75
- Morgan MS, Arlian LG, Fernandez-Caldas E. Cross-allergenicity of the house dust mites Euroglyphus maynei and Blomia tropicalis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996;77(5):386-92
- Ock MS, Kim BJ, Kim SM, Byun KH. Cloning and expression of trypsin-encoding cDNA from Blattella germanica and its possibility as an allergen. Korean J Parasitol. 2005;43(3):101-110.
- Cheong N, Yang L, Lee BW, Chua KY. Cloning of a group 3 allergen from Blomia tropicalis mites. Allergy 2003;58(4):352-6
- Harumal P, Morgan M, Walton SF, Holt DC, Rode J, Arlian LG, Currie BJ, Kemp DJ. Identification of a homologue of a house dust mite allergen in a cDNA library from Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis and evaluation of its vaccine potential in a rabbit/S. scabiei var. canis model. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2003;68(1):54-60
- de Montis G. Role of the Acarid Euroglyphus Maynei in allergic respiratory diseases in children. [French] Bull Acad Natl Med 1992;176(1):59-67; discussion 67-9
- Musken H, Franz JT, Wahl R, Paap A, Cromwell O, Masuch G, Bergmann KC. Sensitization to different mite species in German farmers: clinical aspects. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2000;10(6):346-51
- Blythe ME, Williams JD, Smith JM. Distribution of pyroglyphid mites in Birmingham with particular reference to Euroglyphus maynei. Clin Allergy 1974;4(1):25-33
- Solarz K. House dust mites (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) as the frequent cause of allergies in humans. [Polish] Wiad Parazytol 1999;45(4):465-72
- Arlian LG, Morgan MS. Biology, ecology, and prevalence of dust mites. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2003;23(3):443-68
- Arlian LG, Morgan MS, Neal JS. Dust mite allergens: ecology and distribution. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2002;2(5):401-11
- Roche N, Chinet TC, Huchon GJ. Allergic and nonallergic interactions between house dust mite allergens and airway mucosa. Eur Respir J 1997;10(3):719-26
- Musken H, Fernandez-Caldas E, Maranon F, Franz JT, Masuch G, Bergmann KC. In vivo and in vitro sensitization to domestic mites in German urban and rural allergic patients. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2002;12(3):177-81
- Hart BJ, Whitehead L. Ecology of house dust mites in Oxfordshire. Clin Exp Allergy 1990;20(2):203-9
- Young RP, Hart BJ, Faux JA, Hopkin JM. House dust mite sensitivity: a comparison of immune response with exposure to four species of Pyroglyphidae. Clin Exp Allergy 1990;20(3):319-25
- Walshaw MJ, Evans CC. The effect of seasonal and domestic factors on the distribution of Euroglyphus maynei in the homes of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergic patients. Clin Allergy 1987;17(1):7-14
- Colloff MJ. Mites from house dust in Glasgow. Med Vet Entomol 1987;1(2):163-8
- Colloff MJ. Mite fauna of dust from passenger trains in Glasgow. Epidemiol Infect 1987;98(1):127-30
- Solarz K. The allergenic acarofauna of house dust from dwellings, hospitals, libraries and institutes in Upper Silesia (Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med 1998;5(1):73-85
- Solarz K. Risk of exposure to house dust pyroglyphid mites in Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 2001;8(1):11-24
- Ebner C, Feldner H, Ebner H, Kraft D. Sensitization to storage mites in house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) allergic patients. Comparison of a rural and an urban population. Clin Exp Allergy 1994;24(4):347-52
- Dusbabek F. Present state of research on house dust mites (Pyroglyphidae) in the Czech Republic. Wiad Parazytol 1995;41(3):337-42
- Golysheva MA. Sensitization to granary mites in patients with allergic diseases. [Russian] Ter Arkh 1991;63(3):119-21
- Mehl R. Occurrence of mites in Norway and the rest of Scandinavia. Allergy 1998;53(48 Suppl):28-35
- van Hage-Hamsten M, Johansson SG. Clinical significance and allergenic cross-reactivity of Euroglyphus maynei and other nonpyroglyphid and pyroglyphid mites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;83(3):581-9
- Brisman J, Lillienberg L, Belin L, Ahman M, Jarvholm B. Sensitisation to occupational allergens in bakers’ asthma and rhinitis: a case-referent study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2003;76(2):167-70
- Mumcuoglu KY, Gat Z, Horowitz T, Miller J, Bar-Tana R, Ben-Zvi A, Naparstek Y. Abundance of house dust mites in relation to climate in contrasting agricultural settlements in Israel. Med Vet Entomol 1999;13(3):252-8
- Arlian LG, Bernstein D, Bernstein IL, Friedman S, Grant A, Lieberman P, Lopez M, Metzger J, Platts-Mills T, Schatz M, et al. Prevalence of dust mites in the homes of people with asthma living in eight different geographic areas of the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90(3 Pt 1):292-300
- Massey DG, Furumizo RT, Fournier-Massey G, Kwock D, Harris ST. House dust mites in university dormitories. Ann Allergy 1988;61(3):229-32
- da Silva Ezequiel O, Gazeta GS, Amorim M, Serra-Freire NM. Evaluation of the acarofauna of the domiciliary ecosystem in Juiz de Fora, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2001;96(7):911-6
- Caraballo L, Puerta L, Fernandez-Caldas E, Lockey RF, Martinez B. Sensitization to mite allergens and acute asthma in a tropical environment. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1998;8(5):281-4
- Neffen HE, Fernandez-Caldas E, Predolini N, Trudeau WL, Sanchez-Guerra ME, Lockey RF. Mite sensitivity and exposure in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1996;6(5):278-82
- Prieto Ursua L, Sienra Monge JJ, del Rio Navarro BE, Mercado Ortiz VM. Skin tests for different species of acari in asthmatic children from Mexico City. [Spanish] Rev Alerg Mex 1995;42(3):49-53
- Terra SA, Silva DA, Sopelete MC, Mendes J, Sung SJ, Taketomi EA. Mite allergen levels and acarologic analysis in house dust samples in Uberaba, Brazil. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2004;14(3):232-237
- Calvo M, Fernandez-Caldas E, Arellano P, Marin F, Carnes J, Hormaechea A. Mite allergen exposure, sensitisation and clinical symptoms in Valdivia, Chile. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2005;15(3):189-196
- Montealegre F, Sepulveda A, Bayona M, Quinones C, Fernandez-Caldas E. Identification of the domestic mite fauna of Puerto Rico. P R Health Sci J 1997;16(2):109-16
- Colloff MJ, Stewart GA, Thompson PJ. House dust acarofauna and Der p I equivalent in Australia: the relative importance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei. Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21(2):225-30
- Li C, Li L. Human pulmonary ascariasis in Anhui Province: an epidemiological survey. [Chinese] Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 1990;8(1):41-4
- Lai CL, Shyur SD, Wu CY, Chang CL, Chu SH. Specific IgE to 5 different major house dust mites among asthmatic children. Acta Paediatr Taiwan 2002;43(5):265-70
- Armentia A, Fernandez A, Perez-Santos C, de la Fuente R, Sanchez P, Sanchis F, Mendez J, Stolle R. Occupational allergy to mites in salty ham, chorizo and cheese. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1994;22(4):152-4