Frequently used hypnotic, barbiturate anesthetic.
1/23000 to 1/29000 administrations.
Deaths rarely reported.
Previous exposure (94%).
Female gender (gender ratio 3/1)
General: anaphylactic shock
Cutaneous: flush, generalized erythema, angioedema, fixed drug eruption.
Possible delayed reactions.
Haematological: haemolytic anemia.
Prick-tests or intradermal tests. Dilution 1/1000 to 1/10 of 2.5% thiopental.
Detection of thiopentone-reactive IgE antibodies by the RAST method ; which specificity is confirmed by hapten inhibition studies.
Immediate hypersensitivity: Usually IgE-mediated.
Allergenic determinants: pentyl and ethyl groups attached to position 5 on the pyrimidine ring nucleus and the secondary region of the ring, encompassing and including the attached hetero atom.
Possible involvement of non-specific histamine release.