Rifamycin SV


Semi-synthetic antibiotic derived from Rifamycin B.
Widely used by surgeons for local application.
 
Incidence
Uncommon.
 
Clinical manifestations
Contact dermatitis.
 
Contact urticaria.
 
Anaphylactic reactions.
 
Diagnostic methods
Cutaneous testing.
 
Prick-tests 50µg/ml.
 
Intradermal tests 50 µg/ml to 5000 µg/ml (positive in 4/4 patients with anaphylaxis).
 
Specific IgE: detected in at least one case.
 
Histamine release (positive in 2/3 patients with anaphylaxis).
 
Antiparasite cytotoxicity by platelets (positive in 4/4 patients with anaphylaxis).
 
Mechanisms
IgE-mediated allergy.
 
Management
Avoidance.
 
Possible cross-reactivity with Rifampicine and Rifabutine.

References

  1. Magnan A, Venemalm L, Porri F, Vervloet D, "Anaphylactic reaction to rifamycin SV: presence of specific IgE antibodies", J. Allergy. Clin. Immunol., 1999 in press
  2. Cardot E, Tille-Leblond I, Jeannin P, Facon A, Breuil K, Patte F, Tonnel A.B, "Anaphylactic reaction to local administration of Rifamycin SV", J. Allergy. Clin. Immunol. 1995 ; 95: 1-7
  3. Piazza I, "Anaphylactic reaction to local administration of Rifamycin" (abstract), Allergologie. 1989 ; 12 (s): 96
  4. Grob J.J, Pommier G, Robaglia A, Collet-Vilette A.M, Bonerandi J.J, "Contact urticaria from Rifamycin", Contact. Dermatitis. 1987 ; 16: 284-5

As in all diagnostic testing, the diagnosis is made by the physican based on both test results and the patient history.