Streptomycin is a chemical complex substance, being composed of a central hexose (streptidine) linked to an amine-substituted disaccharide. Widely used in the past (tuberculosis), its use has declined drastically but is now routinely added to cell culture media (PHA-LAK) and to Ham’s F-10 medium, which is used for in vitro fertilization.
High in the past (> 2% of treatments).
General: anaphylactic shock, fever, serum sickness.
Cutaneous: urticaria, rash, contact dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis.
Haematological: eosinophilia, haemolytic anemia.
Skin prick-tests (1 to 10 mg/ ml).
Intradermal skin-tests (1 mg/ ml).
Patch-tests with streptomycin in 2% pet. positive in patients with contact dermatitis.
Specific IgE (RAST, ELISA) few cases with positive results
Histamine-release test: one case with dose-dependent release following stimulation with streptomycin (1 ; 0.1 ; 0.01 µg/ml).
High molecular mass impurities (streptomycin polymers) related to some reactions aminogroups of streptomycin are the allergens involved in immediate-type allergies.
Desensitization (3 hours) beginning with 1 mg intravenously.