Dialyzers prepared with raw cellulose, copper, ammoniac, and other chemical products.
First-use syndrome: 3 to 5% of dialysed patients.
Use of new cellulose.
- Insufficient rinsing before dialysis.
- Previous exposure to the same type of hemodialyzer.
- Atopy (more rapid onset and more pronounced complement activation).
First-use syndrome: chest and back pain, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, shortness of breath.
Respiratory: dyspnea, wheezing.
Cutaneous: pruritus, urticaria, edema.
Digestive: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain.
Complement activation via the alternative pathway.
Ethyleneoxide has an increased allergenicity after contact with cuprammonium cellulose dialyzers.
Use of reused dialyzers lower complement activation.