Recombinant DNA techniques have permitted the development of vaccines to the hepatitis B virus prepared by cloning and expressing the Hbs antigen in yeast or CHO cells.
Less than 1%.
Contact sensitization to formaldehyde or thiomersal.
- Local reactions: local urticaria or aluminum granuloma.
- General reactions: arthralgias, myalgias, generalized urticaria, Arthus phenomenon, erythema multiforme (2/200 000), erythema nodosum, pruritus (1/122 500), thrombocytopenic purpura, eczema exacerbation.
Prick tests: full vaccine 1/10, saccharomyces cerevesiae, thiomersal 0.1%, aluminum chloride 0.5%, latex.
Intradermal skin tests: full vaccine 1/100.
Patch tests: thiomersal 0.1%, aluminum chloride 0.5%, formaldehyde 2%.
Few cases with positive tests to thiomersal, aluminum chloride, saccharomyces cerevesiae, latex or formaldehyde.
Specific IgE: saccharomyces cerevesiae.
Aluminum hydroxide, thiomersal, formalin, yeast or latex are responsible for the few reported allergic reactions to the hepatitis B vaccine.
If revaccination is necessary, use vaccine containing a different preservative.
In patients with latex allergy, use a glass syringe and remove the rubber bung.